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There are two types of measurement — outcome and output — both linked by carefully defined objectives at the start of a campaign. Outcome measurements, which tell us how much a public relations campaign has moved the needle in public awareness, attitudes and behavior. Outputs reflect the success of short-term tactics and efforts, and can be as simple as media content analysis, ad equivalencies, impressions, numbers of messages sent and placed, speeches given and attendance at events. Ad equivalency inaccurately infers that public relations can be compared to advertising; media value — the space or time occupied by a story — is what public relations can measure.